Abstract MUST be submit on Microsoft Word File.
Click HERE for abstract template or you may follow as below :
Urinary Hydrogen Peroxide and Renal Function Parameter of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Consuming Metformin and Metformin-Sulfonylurea
Rani Sauriasari, Rizky Mutiara Mahani, Andisyah Putri Sekar, Azizahwati
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, INDONESIA.
Objective: Diabetes is one of the primary causes of kidney failure. About 40% people with diabetes will get Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The previous study reported that oxidative
stress played an important role in diabetic patients with kidney damage. However, the study did not take consideration for the therapeutic treatment of the patients. This study purpose to
determine urinary hydrogen peroxide concentration as a biomarker of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes patients consuming metformin and metformin-sulfonylurea and to know its
correlation with estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio (UACR) as a parameter of the renal function.
Methods: Blood and urine were collected from 114 type 2 diabetes outpatients in Pasar Minggu Community Health Center. The concentration of urinary hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured using Ferrous Ion Oxidation Xylenol Orange 1 (FOX-1) method and was normalized with urine creatinine measured with kinetic Jaffe method. The value of eGFR was calculated based on serum creatinine using Cockroft-gault, MDRD, dan CKD-EPI equation.
Results: There were no significant difference in concentration of urinary H2O2 (p = 0.228), eGFR (Cockroft-Gault p= 0.936; MDRD p = 0.779; dan CKD-EPI p= 0.671), and UACR (p = 0.838) between the two groups of treatment. There was no correlation between urinary H2O2 with eGFR in all equations and between urinary H2O2 and UACR. In the other hand, moderate positive correlation showed in analysis between urinary H2O2 and UACR in patients with albuminuria (r=0.457; p=0.001). Results of linear regression analysis showed that H2O2 was the most and the only significant factor for increased UACR, even after controlled by age, gender, IMT, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, hypertension status, smoking habit, exercise habit, and medicine. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in concentration of urinary H2O2 in type 2 diabetes patients consuming metformin and metformin-sulfonylurea. Urinary presumably will increase significantly together with the present of albuminuria, so it can not be used in early detection of renal function in patients without albuminuria.
Key words: Metformin, Sulfonylurea, Diabetes Mellitus, Estimated Glomerular FiltrationRate, Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio, Urinary Hydrogen Peroxide.
2. Preparation of Manuscript/Fullpaper
Your Manuscript should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized – paper (8.5″ x 11″) with 1″ margins on all sides. You should use 12 pt Times New Roman font. Authors should take care over the fonts which are used in the document, including fonts within graphics. Fonts should be restricted to Times New Roman, Symbol and Zapf Dingbats.
Title : Should be in Title Case ; The first character in each word in the title have to be capitalized.
A research paper typically should include in the following order
- Materials and Methods
- Acknowledgements (If any)
- Tables and/or Figures
- Appendixes (if necessary)
- Abbreviations (if necessary)
- Abstract – Limit of 250 Words
A brief summary of the research. The abstract should include a brief introduction, a description of the hypothesis tested, the approach used to test the hypothesis, the results seen and the conclusions of the work.
- Key words
Please, write no more than six keywords. Write specific keywords. They should be written left aligned, arranged alphabetically in 12pt Times Roman, and the line must begin with the words Keywords boldfaced. A 12pt space should separate the keywords from the affiliations.
Description of the research area, pertinent background information, and the hypotheses tested in the study should be included under this section. The introduction should provide sufficient background information such that a scientifically literate reader can understand and appreciate the experiments to be described. The introduction MUST include in-text citations including references to pertinent reviews and primary scientific literature. The specific aims of the project should be identified along with a rationale for the specific experiments and other work performed.
- Materials and Methods
Materials and/or subjects utilized in the study as well as the procedures undertaken to complete the work. The methods should be described in sufficient detail such that they could be repeated by a competent researcher. Please include the company sources for all uncommon reagents (kits, drugs, etc). Illustrations and/or tables may be helpful in describing complex equipment or elaborate procedures. The statistical tool used to analyze the data should be mentioned. All procedures involving experimental animals or human subjects must accompany with statement on necessary ethical approval from appropriate ethics committee.
Data acquired from the research with appropriate statistical analysis described in the methods section should be included in this section. The results section should describe the rational for each experiment, the results obtained and its significance. Results should be organized into figures and tables with descriptive captions. The captions, although brief, should tell the reader the method used, explain any abbreviations included in the figure, and should end with a statement as to the conclusion of the figure. Qualitative as well as quantitative results should be included if applicable.
This section should relate the results section to current understanding of the scientific problems being investigated in the field. Description of relevant references to other work/s in the field should be included here. This section also allows you to discuss the significance of your results – i.e. does the data support the hypotheses you set out to test? This section should end with new answers/questions that arise as a result of your work.
- Tables and Figures
Each table must start on a separate sheet. They should be numbered with Roman numerals according to their sequence in the text, and have a short self-explanatory heading. Use SI units. Tables should include vertical rules, but horizontal rules should separate column headings from the content. Authors should keep in mind the page layout of the journal when designing tables. Tables that fit onto one printed page are preferred. Detailed explanations of symbols, units, and abbreviations should follow below the table.
Figures for final production should be submitted as electronic files and hard copy so that the editorial office can ensure that the output of electronic files matches the hardcopy. Please pay particular attention to the guidelines below. The editorial office cannot undertake preparation of manuscripts and illustrations not conforming to journal style. Manuscripts of insufficient quality will be returned immediately without refereeing. A high standard of illustration (both line and photo) is an editorial priority. All illustrations should be prepared for printing to fit 80 x 240 mm (column width) or 169 mm by up to 240 mm (full page) size. It is preferred that the full-page length is not used and that authors keep in mind that the caption will be placed underneath the figure. In the event that full-page length is necessary for plates, captions will have to appear on adjacent pages. Figure(s) must be numbered consecutively in the text. Compound figures with more than one micrograph or photo should be referred by a single figure reference (e.g. Figure 1), and individual parts should be labeled with capitalized letters in the lower left-hand corner. Lettering should be of a sans-serif type (i.e. fonts without serifs such as Arial) with a minimum published size of 4.2 mm (12 pt). Descriptive labeling in the figures should be clearly readable, and all lettering should have a minimum published size of 6 pt (2.1 mm) for labeling items on photographs or in line art is recommended and a maximum size of 10 pt is suggested. Use a scale bar to indicate magnifications and place in the lower right corner if possible. Computer prepared photographic images must be at a minimum of 350 dpi at the final publication size. Lower resolution will result in pixilation and poor quality images. These should be submitted as JPEG, TIFF or PPT files, but encapsulated postscript (EPS) format is also acceptable.
Computer drawn figures are accepted provided they are of high quality. Please note that graphs produced by many statistic packages are rarely adequate. In particular, letter quality on axes and captions are often poor. Such figures should be exported into an accepted graphics package and lettering rendered using a text function. Authors should note that .dot, .bmp, and .pat fills should be avoided. Do not use postscript fill patterns as these are often based on bit map patterns that result in screening patterns during final reproduction. When filling illustrations, use fills such as lines, tints or solids. Line width minimum is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm). Also avoid the use of bitmap scans to render text and detail. Text should be saved as text at a minimum text size of 6 pt (2.1 mm). Please submit line art as Corel Draw, Adobe Illustrator, or EPS files. These must be at a minimum resolution of 800 DPI at publication size. High resolution may be necessary where fine line detail is present.
For graphs Excel graphs are also acceptable. Note that vertical axes must all be at the same scale especially where the paper compares between them. Otherwise they should be produced as separate figures. Avoid 3D plots when presenting 2D data.
7.3. Table and Figure captions
Figure and table captions should be included at the end of the manuscript. Figure captions/legends should include a statement at the end of each caption/legends about reproduction size (e.g. at full page width, at column width). They should be double spaced and typed in the journal format. Explanations should be brief and authors should keep in mind that captions/legends will be placed below figures.
7.4. Acknowledgements – Limit of 100 Words
This is a brief section crediting the people who have helped make your manuscript possible and who aided you in your work but are not part of the authorship. Please mention all applicable grants and other funding that supported your work.
Author/Authors< References should be numbered consecutively in the order i which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetic order), script with square bracket after the punctuation marks. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. Use the style of the examples below, which are based on the formats used by the NLM in Index Medicus. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. Use complete name of the journal for non-indexed journals. Avoid using abstracts as references. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source. Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. The commonly cited types of references are shown here, for other types of references such as newspaper items please refer to ICMJE Guidelines (http://www.icmje.org or http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html).
JOURNAL REFERENCES [Vancouver Style]
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4): 284-7.
More than six authors
Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002; 935(1-2): 40-6.
Organization as Author
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002; 40(5): 679-86.
21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002; 325(7357): 184-5.
Journal article on the Internet
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12]; 102(6): [about 3 p.]. Available from:
Note: Plant/Micro organisms, in-vivo, in-vitro should be in italics.
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
Editor(s), compiler(s) as author
Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
Author(s) and editor(s)
Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.
Organization(s) as author
Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Adelaide, Department of Clinical Nursing. Compendium of nursing research and practice development, 1999-2000. Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University; 2001.
Chapter in a book
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
- Khoshakhlagh. The compositions of volatile fractions of Peganum harmala seeds and its smoke. Pharm. D. Thesis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. (2002).
Cancer-Pain.org [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/